Sunday, May 24, 2009

Tugasan 2 : Ulasan dan analisis artikel jurnal Kajian Tindakan

Journal 1
Title : Teachers’ developing ‘practical theories’ of the contribution of information and communication technologies to subject teaching and learning: an analysis of cases from English secondary schools

Sample:

Sample being selected in this action research are teachers and students (specifically to teachers) as the study is about to investigate the effectiveness of ICT in enhancing teaching and learning process as applied by the teachers.

Setting:

English secondary schools (in U.K)

Procedure of action research:

1. This study is aimed on investigating usage of computer based information and communication in pedagogy. There are 5 themes or area being classified as particular where ICT could benefits in pedagogy technique. They are broadening classroom resources and reference, enhancing working processes and products, mediating subject thinking and learning, fostering more independent pupil activity, improving pupil motivation towards lessons.

2. Upon these 5 themes, examples from 3 cases were done and then related back to the 5 overarching themes. They are use of a virtual archive in history teaching, use of text reversioning in English and use of a circuit simulator in design technology.

3. There are some subjects selected in applying ICT which are history where they looked for the effectiveness of usage of virtual archive of documents and artefacts and related it to the topic such as First World War.

4. Each of 5 themes were investigated to see the benefits upon ICT tools usage in enhancing teaching and learning process in the classroom. Teachers apply the practical and observe the result as well.

5. In one of the theme where in order to fostering more independent pupil activity, teachers found that students somehow get lost in finding their own information through internet. Although it was interesting and creating independency, pupil can easily get lost and finally become hopeless and demotivated. As an action research plan, teachers overcome this problem by range guideline strategies such as offering pre-defined terms, preparing a portal page with hyperlinks to pre-selected sites or making suitable sites available over the school intranet.


Data collection:

The observation and interview being done were audiotaped. Lesson plan, acyivities sheets, samples of students’ work and digital photographs were collected too.

Data analysis:

Analysis being done by two researchers. To avoid bias, they work independently. Summaries and conclusion of each case study were reviewed by the original observer and later by subject specialist within the university.


Journal 2

Title : Using Observational Data to Provide Performance Feedback to Teachers: A High School
Case Study


This is actually the consequences of the previous researches done by a teacher. However among several methods (whole-class lectures, small group activities, independent work, silent reading) being done, things does not change and the teacher seek for help to find other technique as to improve students behavior to his lesson.

Sample :

A male science teacher in his second year of teaching and his students.


Setting:

Suburban high school of approximately 1500 students

Procedure of action research:

1. Since the teacher stated that he had done several methods but doesn’t work, first procedure being done is observation in the classroom as to collect information which to give the teacher clearer picture of the interconnected patterns of instructional practices, student behavior, and teaching contexts, and demonstrate change over time.

2. Upon the observation, the researcher identify uses of effective instructional for example the corrective feedback. He relate student engagement to the activities, relate student and teachers behavior, adjusted some observation procedures ( such as event vs interval) and provided clearer feedback to the teacher.

3. Data were collected during the observation.

4. After receive the result of the first observation, teacher and the first author develop action plan that focused on manipulations of the setting or the teacher action variables that were associated with the class levels of student on-task behaviour.
5. After applying the action plan, the researcher then observe the result and after that, do the modification on the action plan.

6. After doing the third observation, they did another modification on the action plan. Because of the improvements observed in teacher and student behavior, there is no another modification being done, only the self-monitoring strategies being added as to make sure the improvements gained will be maintained.

The procedures could be simplify into this route :

Observation --> data collection, analysis --> develop action plan --> apply the action plan --> observe result --> modify the action plan --> apply --> observe result --> modify the action plan --> apply --> observe result (good and got improvement) --> strategies to maintain the improvement.

Data collection :

Data collected upon 3 variables which are setting for the classroom period, teacher behavior and action and also class engagement. There is also cover sheet to gain data of general information. Researcher used a form to record the classroom observation for each of the 10 intervals being observed.

Data analysis:

Data of all observation intervals were tabulated and represented in graph. The field tested were done by two observer. The two observers met and reviewed the definitions of the items on the observation tool. They discussed examples and nonexamples for each item, completed an observation, and discussed the results. Then, researcher completed three observations to assess reliability.

Journal 3

Title: Using Data Comparison and Interpretation to Develop Procedural Understandings in the
Primary Classroom: Case study evidence from action research

Sample :

A group of primary teachers who were teaching children in Key Stage 2 of the primary phase of schooling in England (Years 3–5, 7–10 year olds).

Setting:

The primary phase of schooling in England. All of the schools were based in large towns and all can be described as having mixed socioeconomic intakes.


Procedure of action research:

Basically the test was divided into a division where each of the division was given a data set which suit the age of the students.

Year 3 (ages 7–8 years)—one class: A data set on the absorbency of different nappies, providing information in a table on dry weight, wet weight and the amount of water absorbed. The information on the amount of water absorbed was included as a graph.

Year 4 (ages 8–9 years)—class (a): A data set on the insulating properties of sleeping bags, providing a table and graph of a cooling curve for water in a container surrounded by different sleeping bag fillings.

Year 4—class (b): A data set related to fluid friction, providing details of the ways in which another class had set about altering a hull shape to try to influence the journey time across a water tank, together with a table and graph of results.

Year 5 (ages 9–10)—one class: A data set on the melting times of different foods (such as chocolate), providing a table and graph for the melting times of four foods.

For each class, three to four groups were interviewed and the researcher were concerned that the children should have worked together before the intervention with the data sets and should be comfortable in expressing their ideas in the presence of other children.

There are three interview coding matrix.

Data collection:

Data were collected through the interview session (three coding matrix)

Data analysis:

In this section the researcher provide an analysis of their findings using the three topics of the interview coding matrix as themes for consideration. They have not broken down their findings in line with the subsections of the coding matrix, since to do so would lose the unique flavour of each case study.


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